Energy Planning Policies

Archaic Chinese

The dialects of these six groups of common of a part of China, they said a third of the total population. In addition to these there are three dialects of "Mandarin" dialect, which belong to a group of northern dialects. All those dialects differ from each another, to the same extent as the different French and Italian. And the only people who speak the northern dialect, understand each other. Northern dialects can be compared with the ratio of British, American and Australian languages. Let's see how the Chinese language evolved? Following the historical facts can be identified srednekitaysky and Old Chinese language. Ancient Chinese language – the language of the classical period, it still called Archaic Chinese language already existed in Confucius (ca. 550-480 years BC).

About him we know less about than srednekitayskom language. And the views of historians on this issue differ. However, they all agree on that in Old Chinese language deaf stop consonants contrasted voiced unaspirated-aspirated by (t, t '; d, d'; k, k '; g, g'), and also had a lot of konechnoslogovyh consonants (-p,-t ,-k,-m,-n,-ng,-b (at least),-d,-g,-r;) and were some nachalnoslogovye (kl, gl, pl, bl). By the same word differently distributed in tonal groups. Most modern dialects originated from the language spoken by the inhabitants of the south-western part of Chinese territory. The Chinese have for centuries very seriously the formation and establishment of their language.

Analyzing historical facts, may be fairly accurately reproduce the system of forming the Chinese language, which began in 600 AD. Chanan town for several dynasties, the political and cultural center. And pronunciation, adopted in the area, has spread quite widely. By the time the "chananskom" dialect of the people began to speak of eastern and southern parts of the country, the northern dialects have changed in the direction of simplification of phonetics. And today the North dialects are far from srednekitayskogo language. But the dialects of Xian and more others retained the old initialize (or syllables), Hakka dialects of Amoy better preserved konechnoslogovye consonants. So the poetry of Li Bo and Du Fu, Tang Dynasty poets, Cantonese is much better and harmonious rhymes, than in the northern dialects. As in modern language, there srednekitayskom 4 tones: An old flat tone (corresponding to the first or second modern tone depends on the voiceless and voiced initial), the old ascending tone (corresponding to modern third tone), leaving the old (falling) tone (now the fourth tone) and tone, which has no parallel in modern language, which had no initialization tone contrasts. Most part of the grammar of the above applies to earlier periods of formation srednekitayskogo language. One exception is that the monosyllabic root words rarely transformed into highly complex, and, basically, language has been almost entirely monosyllabic, which was not in the following centuries. Medium-and ancient Chinese grammar of modern grammar differed significantly smaller than phonetics. The word order remains basically the same. Changed only that the circumstances of the place, mode of action and others often came after the verb, as in modern Chinese language, they go before the verb. Chinese dialects differ mainly in pronunciation, to a lesser degree of vocabulary and grammar are almost indistinguishable. But because of these differences, they have never considered different languages. This has happened because he was venyan – common, unified literary language, which does not have an accent. AND therefore, it is impossible to know for printed or written characters, where, from what area of China to the author. Nowadays, Grammar Chinese language based on Mandarin, which is based on written language bayhua.

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